In recent years, the plight of the honeybee has made international headlines due to alarming colony losses. When many folks hear the term pollinator, the honeybee quickly comes to mind. While honeybees are indeed an invaluable pollinator resource, there are many other pollinator species with interesting stories.
For example, Syrphid flies (Syrphidae) are intriguing garden guests. Also known as hoverflies, they are contenders for second place after native bees as important pollinators. In fact, many look remarkably like bees and wasps and reveal their identity only upon close inspection.
Attracting hoverflies to your garden has an added benefit: many of their larvae are important in controlling aphids. Peaches, plums raspberries and strawberries are just a few of the edible crops they pollinate.
Moths are another important pollinator. When bees retire at the end of the day, many species of moths take over the night shift. With a preference for light-colored and fragrant flowers, they are top-notch pollinators for gardenias, tobacco and morning glory.
Many moth species rival butterflies when it comes to beautiful markings. To help keep them in your garden, reduce or eliminate unnecessary bright lights, which can disorient them.
Bananas, mangos and peaches are a small sample of fruits that bats might pollinate. Like moths, bats work the night shift. Several species of pollinator bats inhabit the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, and some agave and California desert cacti depend on them for pollination.
The bats in Napa County are mostly insect-eating species. Some can easily consume several hundred insects, including mosquitoes, in an hour.
Few people know that mosquitoes are also a pollinator species. We malign them for spreading disease and causing itchy bites, but actually only the female bites. Males drink nectar — as do females — and transfer pollen in the process.
Wasps are critical pollinators for some fig trees, which are popular in our mild Mediterranean climate. While some modern fig cultivars can produce fruit without wasps, traditionally the fig wasp is the main pollinator. The female wasp lays her eggs in what will become the fruit and in doing so transfers pollen she has collected. She then dies and is resorbed by the fruit as it matures.
One other pollinator species often gets overlooked: humans. Yes, in many instances, we do the job by hand. Vanilla is perhaps the best-known example. However, some plants grown in greenhouses — such as tomatoes —are gently touched with an electric toothbrush to simulate the “buzz” pollination of bumblebees and release large amounts of pollen. This is an excellent way to boost production in your own garden.
Giant pumpkins — or any squash for that matter — can also be hand pollinated. While the method is a bit more involved, hand pollination can also be used to keep desired strains pure or to increase the likelihood of getting a crop at all.
Beetles, lizards, ants and even snails and slugs are all known pollinators, among many others. Planting different species of plants and growing flowers with different bloom periods can provide food and habitat for these essential creatures.
Also, planting natives and flowers known for nectar or pollen is a good strategy for attracting pollinators. Decreasing or eliminating your use of pesticides will also help. With summer weather in full swing, take a closer look at your garden. You might just find a few of these pollinators are already present.
Free Tree Walk: U. C. Master Gardeners of Napa County will host a guided tree walk of Fuller Park, 560 Jefferson, in Napa, on Monday, July 10, from 10 a.m. to noon. Enjoy a fun, informational stroll through the park, learning about its history and 41 different trees on site. Wear comfortable shoes. Restrooms are available and handicap accessible. The book “Trees to Know in Napa Valley” will be available for $15 each (cash or check only).
To register, call 707-253-4221. Walk-ins are welcome, but you are guaranteed to receive a complimentary map and additional information if you register at least 48 hours in advance.